"Environmental Preservation and Politics: The Significance of 'Everglades Jetport'". world to experience its natural beauty. Much Underground peat fires burned roots of trees and plants without burning the plants in some places. only high school is named after her. Willoughby described the water as healthy and wholesome, with numerous springs, and 10,000 alligators "more or less" in Lake Okeechobee. However, on September 16, 1928 came a massive storm, now known as the 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane. ). [32] His most fundamental mistake, however, was designing the canals for a maximum rainfall of 4 inches (10 cm) of water a day, based on flawed data for July and August rainfall, despite available data that indicated torrential downpours of 10 inches (25 cm) and 12 inches (30 cm) had occurred in 24-hour periods. "Do-It-Yourself Deathscape: The Unnatural History of Natural Disaster in South Florida". flow, the water is contaminated by fertilizer and other runoff, and the ", Light, Stephen, J. Walter Dineen, "Water Control in the Everglades: A Historical Perspective" in. 1909: A preliminary (and flawed) draft of the USDA's report on the feasibility of draining the Everglades, prepared by James Wright, was released to the Internal Improvement Fund. Actually, it was the United States military that began draining the Everglades to try and flush out the Seminole Indians. Between 1952 and 1954, a levee 100 miles long was built between 1930 and 1937, Hoover Dike was built around Lake Okeechobee’s edge. Developers. PROJECT TITLE Draining of the Everglades Ecosystem APPLICANTS Esther Alexandre, Ayanna Johnson, Ariel Berkeley, Tanija Nathaniel; Miami Lakes Educational Center SUMMARY AIMS OF PROJECT The Everglades cover about 8 million acres of the Florida peninsula. [86] When park management and the U.S. Department of the Interior asked the C&SF for assistance, the C&SF offered to build a levee along the southern border of Everglades National Park to retain waters that historically flowed through the mangroves and into Florida Bay. Many queries like these passed through our minds. As early as 1837, a visitor to the Everglades suggested the value of the land without the water: Could it be drained by deepening the natural outlets? [15] The New York Times declared it the largest purchase of land ever by any individual. The Everglades is a massive watershed that crosses multiple ecosystems and communities. The Effects Of Fire And Flooding On The Florida Everglades 1940 Words | 8 Pages. Wetlands loss and lowering of water tables 2. The Florida Everglades are critical to the survival of local birds, reptiles and millions of people. In the southern Everglades was Everglades National Park. Between The effects of fertilizer and pesticide application has reverberated throughout the ecoregion causing widespread degradation. [31] The abstracts were released to real estate developers who used them in their advertisements, and Wright and the USDA were pressed by the real estate industry to publicize the report as quickly as possible. , Peat turned to dust, and salty ocean water entered Miami's wells. [63], The focus of government agencies quickly shifted to the control of floods rather than drainage. decade-long drought. Severe hurricanes in 1926 and 1928 caused catastrophic damage and flooding from Lake Okeechobee that prompted the Army Corps of Engineers to build a dike around the lake. thousands of years, its waters and vegetation provide home to thousands of levee (C-38) is on the eastern edge of the Everglades and the western edge of [2][3] The U.S. military was completely unprepared for the conditions they found in the Everglades. FRED SKLAR: “It was huge. Hunting often went unchecked; on one trip, a Lake Okeechobee hunter killed 250 alligators and 172 otters. Perhaps more than any other U.S. … Levee 29 featured four flood control gates that controlled all the water entering Everglades National Park; before construction, water flowed in through open drain pipes. (December, 2002). It is the general impression that these everglades are uninhabitable during the summer months, by reason of their being overflowed by the abundant rains of the season; but if it should prove that these inundations are caused or increased by obstructions to the natural courses of the rivers, as outlets to the numerous lakes, American industry will remove these obstructions. He was eulogized across Florida for his leadership and progressive inspiration. Naturally occurring bacteria in Everglades peat and muck assist with the process of decomposition under water, which is generally very slow, partially due to the low levels of dissolved oxygen . animals, birds, fish, plants, and reptilian species. government. [48] The advent of the fishing industry, the arrival of the railroad, and the discovery of the benefits of adding copper to Okeechobee muck soon created unprecedented numbers of residents in new towns like Moore Haven, Clewiston, and Belle Glade. [69], Although the idea of protecting a portion of the Everglades arose in 1905, a crystallized effort was formed in 1928 when Miami landscape designer Ernest F. Coe established the Everglades Tropical National Park Association. The Everglades today receives less than one-third of its historic water flow, the water is contaminated by fertilizer and other runoff, and the wildlife-rich wetlands are half the size they were when the federal government started its draining projects in the 1920s. [85] Animals began to cross Tamiami Trail for the water held in WCA 3, and many were killed by cars. Water control has been achieved through the use of drainage canals and pumping stations throughout the Everglades region. Agricultural interests lost about $59 million. the Everglades was divided into sections separated by canals and water control There was a change due to water levels C. It effected panthers, gators, manatees, snail kite, storks, and birds D. None of the above E. All of the above Dovell, J. E. (July 1947). [64] Between 1930 and 1937, a dike 66 miles (106 km) long was built around the southern edge of the lake, and a shorter one around the northern edge. [56] The tops of Lake Okeechobee levees were only 18 to 24 inches (46 to 61 cm) above the lake itself and the engineers were aware of the danger. scenery of pine and freshwater cypress forests, open prairie, and tropical One soldier's account of the trip in the St. Augustine News was the first printed description of the Everglades available to the general public. In short, people dried out, built on, and farmed the Everglades. The winter of 1922 was unseasonably wet and the region was underwater. Parkland’s [22], Due to Disston's purchase, the IIF was able to sponsor railroad projects, and the opportunity presented itself when oil tycoon Henry Flagler became enchanted with St. Augustine during a vacation. [5], The military penetration of southern Florida offered the opportunity to map a poorly understood part of the country. [88] The primary cash crop in the EAA is sugarcane, though sod, beans, lettuce, celery, and rice are also grown. A massive restoration project costing billions of dollars is currently underway to repair the damage to the Everglades, including the draining of huge swaths of its marshes. Hollywood movie stars vacationed in the area and industrialists built lavish homes. About three o'clock it seemed to get on Henry's nerves and we saw him crying, he would not tell us why, he was just plain scared. However, in the late 1960s, following a proposal to construct a massive airport next to Everglades National Park, national attention turned from developing the land to restoring the Everglades. The C&SF used four methods in flood [81], The C&SF constructed over 1,000 miles (1,600 km) of canals, and hundreds of pumping stations and levees within three decades. After the Civil War, a Pennsylvania real estate developer named Hamilton Disston was interested in draining the Everglades for agriculture. Raccoons, more plentiful, only warranted 75 cents each in 1915. Canals drain wetlands, which opens land for development and increases water delivery to cities, wells, and the coast. The party encountered thousands of birds near the Shark River, "killing hundreds, but they continued to return". They began by taxing counties that would be affected by the drainage attempts, at 5 cents an acre, and formed the Everglades Drainage District in 1907. [57], The City of Miami responded to the hurricane by downplaying its effects and turning down aid. The statesman whose exertions shall cause the millions of acres they contain, now worse than worthless, to teem with the products of agricultural industry; that man who thus adds to the resources of his country ... will merit a high place in public favor, not only with his own generation, but with posterity. [76] The C&SF used four methods in flood management: levees, water storage areas, canal improvements, and large pumps to assist gravity. and Coral Springs and others along the levee on the eastern edge of the Usually, lake water is drawn south by canals and helps irrigate sugar cane, vegetables, rice and other crops in the nearly 500,000-acre called the Everglades Agricultural Area. [92] Vegetables require more fertilizer than sugarcane, though the fields may resemble the historic hydrology of the Everglades by being flooded in the wet season. "The Journals of Lieutenant John Pickell, 1836–1837". Everglades. The increased population brought hunters who went unchecked and had a devastating impact on the numbers of wading birds (hunted for their plumes), alligators, and other Everglades animals. [67] [61] Many were swept away and never recovered. [12], A massive canal 80 feet (24 m) wide and 6 feet (1.8 m) deep was also dug through the Caloosahatchee River; when the lake rose too high, the excess water left through the canal to the Gulf of Mexico. Yet, even though much of the region has been set aside, the ecosystem remains threatened. The water level for sugarcane is ideally maintained at 20 inches (51 cm) below the surface soil, and after the cane is harvested, the stalks are burned. Since 1845, when Florida became a state, people have shaped the Everglades. In 1948, From 1959 to 1962 the region went from two sugar mills to six, one of which in Belle Glade set several world records for sugar production. "As a result, many lives were lost during the second phase of the storm. Building canals would be more cost effective than constructing a dike around Lake Okeechobee. "Playground of the USA". Business Week reported real estate prices jumped from $200 to $800 an acre surrounding the planned location, and Life wrote of the expectations of the commercial interests in the area. Meindl, Christopher, et al. Miami experienced a second real estate boom that earned a developer in Coral Gables $150 million and saw undeveloped land north of Miami sell for $30,600 an acre. An opponent of Everglades drainage, Stoneman published editorials that infuriated Governor Broward . [84] The DCPA bulldozed the land it had bought, and laid a single runway it declared was for training pilots. The populations of the small towns surrounding the lake jumped from 3,000 to 9,000 after World War II. In April 1912—the end of the dry season—reporters from all over the U.S. were given a tour of what had recently been drained, and they returned to their papers and raved about the progress. [73] Its first printing sold out a month after its release. Almost 4,000 Seminoles were killed in the war or were removed. While a tremendous amount of human activity increases in the ecosystem, the environment exponentially degrades. The Everglades is Congress approved the Central and Southern Florida Project for Flood Control Crist, then a Republican, said the state would use the land for Everglades restoration. and 1963, Everglades were divided into basins. The effects Combating nutrient-rich (nitrate-contaminated) water, interrupted hydrology, decreased water supply, exotic plants, and mercury contamination cannot be done successfully at the park level alone. Would it not open to cultivation immense tracts of rich vegetable soil? Broward and his predecessor, William Jennings, were paid by Richard Bolles to tour the state to promote drainage. [3], Broward asked James O. Wright—an engineer on loan to the State of Florida from the USDA's Bureau of Drainage Investigations—to draw up plans for drainage in 1906. In 1939, a million acres of Everglades burned. [1], Wright's initial report concluded that drainage would not be difficult. [50] Waterfront property was the most highly valued. Everglades is one of nature's true masterpieces with its 4000 square miles of diverse Acres of south Florida slash pine were taken down, some for lumber, but the wood was found to be dense and it split apart when nails were driven into it. Usually, lake water is drawn south by canals and helps irrigate sugar cane, vegetables, rice and other crops in the nearly 500,000-acre called the … They can only be solved by a thorough examination of the whole country. started its draining projects in the 1920s. Everglades National Park (ENP) is our only national wetland park, and one of the largest aquascapes in the world. (Winter 1975–1976). and with the wall preventing water leaving Lake Okeechobee and canals and "[18] Disston sponsored the digging of a canal 11 miles (18 km) long from Lake Okeechobee towards Miami, but it was abandoned when the rock proved denser than the engineers had expected. The harmful side effects of dredging and draining were apparent early in this century. Water is the lifeblood of the sprawling Everglades ecosystem, but its wetlands, prairies, forests and hammocks thrive on a seasonal cycle of rainy springs and summers and dryer falls and winters. [6] To avenge repeated surprise attacks on himself and ammunition stores, Colonel William Harney led an expedition into the Everglades in 1840, to hunt for a chief named Chekika. The fertilizers used on vegetables, along with high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus that are the by-product of decayed soil necessary for sugarcane production, were pumped into WCAs south of the EAA, predominantly to Everglades National Park. [98] The New York Times called it a "blueprint for disaster",[99] and Wisconsin senator Gaylord Nelson wrote to President Richard Nixon voicing his opposition: "It is a test of whether or not we are really committed in this country to protecting our environment. It produced a film, Waters of Destiny, characterized by author Michael Grunwald as propaganda, that likened nature to a villainous, shrieking force of rage and declared the C&SF's mission was to tame nature and make the Everglades useful. In 2000, Congress authorized the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan, or CERP, to fix the damage done by the flood control system that was put in place to drain the Everglades for agricultural, residential and commercial development. "The Everglades: A Florida Frontier". Davis, T. Frederick (January 1939). Early colonial settlers and land developers viewed the Everglades as a worthless swamp in need of reclamation. [52] Engineers were pressured to regulate the water flow, not only for farmers but also for commercial fishers, who often requested conflicting water levels in the lake. His workers and engineers faced conditions similar to those of the soldiers during the Seminole Wars; it was harrowing, backbreaking labor in dangerous conditions. Caused a change in food web B. "The Everglades Before Reclamation". Indeed, it was considered the proper thing to do."[1]. The effects of the Hoover Dike were seen immediately. America's only sub-tropical wilderness and visitors travel from all over the In 2000, Congress authorized the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan, or CERP, to fix the damage done by the flood control system that was put in place to drain the Everglades for agricultural, residential and commercial development. As soon as the water was drained and oxygen mixed with the soil, the bacteria began to break down the soil. Soldiers' legs, feet, and arms were cut open on the sawgrass and gangrene infection set in, taking many lives and limbs. The Everglades are a vast network of subtropical freshwater wetland and estuarine ecosystems that once spanned the length and breadth of south Florida. Nearly all post-storm (August 28 to September 17, 1992) water-quality properties sampled by the South Florida Water Management District were … Between [78], During the 1950s and 1960s the South Florida metropolitan area grew four times as fast as the rest of the nation. [35] Meanwhile, Henry Flagler continued to build railway stations at towns as soon as the populations warranted them. Everglades restoration is a problem to be solved. It also permanently severed the natural connection be-tween the Everglades proper and its headwaters. Wetlands loss and lowering of water tables 2. By 1942, U.S. Sugar was indicted for peonage in federal court, though the charges were eventually dismissed on a technicality. [43] They were usually shot in the spring, when their feathers were colored for mating and nesting. Army Corps of Engineers to assist the communities surrounding the lake. [17], Disston's engineers focused on Lake Okeechobee as well. It determined that, "drainage from the upper everglades threatened the previously high and dry land of the Miami Rocklands of the Atlantic Coastal ridge with flooding, and they also knew that dried organic soils would easily catch fire, destroying the very fertile soil reclamation promised to … White, Frank (October 1959). [30] Abstracts from Wright's report were given to the IIF stating that eight canals would be enough to drain 1,850,000 acres (7,500 km2) at a cost of a dollar an acre. "His persistence paid off when he and others persuaded Congress to designate the Everglades as a … Although there were no human casualties, cattle and deer were drowned and standing water was left in suburban areas for months. Some burned off the sawgrass or other vegetation only to discover that the underlying peat continued to burn. "Everglades Jetport: Academy Prepares a Model", Maltby, E., P.J. [66] In 1939, 1 million acres (4,000 km2) of Everglades burned, and the black clouds of peat and sawgrass fires hung over Miami. Between 1954 Draining the Everglades removed this groundwater, which was replaced by ocean water seeping into the area's wells. Everglades is one of nature's true masterpieces with its 4000 square miles of diverse Parkland’s Written by James Weiss; Edited by Ira Goldman; Parkland Historical Society President Jeff Schwartz; The Florida An army surgeon wrote: "It is in fact a most hideous region to live in, a perfect paradise for Indians, alligators, serpents, frogs, and every other kind of loathsome reptile. This CESI-funded investigation allowed scientists to revisit several vegetation transects that had not been sampled for fifteen to twenty years. Even in the untamed wilderness of the Seminole, man's social and ecological pollution had dire effect. Low flow pools t… Draining the Everglades removed this groundwater, whic… It determined that, "drainage from the upper everglades threatened the previously high and dry land of the Miami Rocklands of the Atlantic Coastal ridge with flooding, and they also knew that dried organic soils would easily catch fire, destroying the very fertile soil reclamation promised to … A report that evaluated the failure of the project concluded: "The reduction of the waters is simply a question of sufficient capacity in the canals which may be dug for their relief". "[97], When studies indicated the proposed jetport would create 4,000,000 US gallons (15,000,000 L) of raw sewage a day and 10,000 short tons (9,100 t) of jet engine pollutants a year, the national media snapped to attention. The effects of fertilizer and pesticide application has reverberated throughout the ecoregion causing widespread degradation. Exotic trees were planted along the north shore levee: Australian pines, Australian oaks, willows, and bamboo. Deep in the heart of the Florida Everglades, dense shade and tropical vegetation provide the ideal hiding place for a number of endangered species and weird animals. His calculations concentrated on the towns of Jupiter and Kissimmee. Between 1940 and 1965, 6 million people moved to south Florida: 1,000 people moved to Miami every week. (April, 2005). [77] Between 1954 and 1963 it divided the Everglades into basins. The subject: Central and South Florida’s impact on ocean and river water quality. Biologists estimate the population of alligators in Everglades National Park was halved; otters nearly became extinct. The embattled head of the Everglades Drainage District carried a gun for protection after being threatened. Peat turned to dust, and salty ocean water entered Miami's wells. ditches removing other water, the Everglades Formed over The town of Moore Haven received 46 inches (1,200 mm) of rain in six weeks in 1924. The Everglades are Half the Size They Were 100 Years ago Formed over 6,000 years ago, the Everglades is home to two Indigenous tribes whose ancestors have been in the area since before the Everglades formed. [80] With metropolitan growth came urban problems associated with rapid expansion: traffic jams; school overcrowding; crime; overloaded sewage treatment plants; and, for the first time in south Florida's urban history, water shortages in times of drought. in 1947 prompted an unprecedented construction of canals throughout southern Marjory Stoneman Douglas, who made her home Flagler publicized Miami as a "Magic City" throughout the United States and it became a prime destination for the extremely wealthy after the Royal Palm Hotel was opened. What facilities for commerce! A levee built of muck collapsed, drowning almost 400 of the town's entire 1,200 residents. The main effects of canals and levees on Everglades water movement have been: 1. His persistence paid off when he and others persuaded Congress to designate the Everglades as a … The manatee and the orchid mean something to people in an abstract way, but the former cannot line their purse, nor the latter fill their empty bellies. But during the rainy season, the flood controls block water from draining, leaving areas like Everglades and Francis S. Taylor Wildlife Management Area … Expanded dredging efforts between 1905 and 1910 transformed large tracts from wetland to agricultural land. The introduction of large amounts of these let exotic plants take hold in the Everglades. Davis, Jack (Summer 2001). He wrote about his observations and sent them back to the New Orleans Times-Democrat. times of drought. Over 1,000 miles of canals and hundreds of pumping Potential employees—primarily young black men—were lured from all over the U.S. by the promise of jobs, but they were held financially responsible for training, transportation, room and board and other costs. Kristofer Mueller South Florida Landscapes The Effects of Fire and Flooding To Tree Islands in the Florida Everglades The topic of this research paper will be the tree island communities in the Florida Everglades and the different conditions that affect them. [79] Urban development between the mid-1950s and the late 1960s quadrupled. Flagler built a railroad along the east coast of Florida and eventually to Key West; towns grew and farmland was cultivated along the rail line. Biscayne Bay was too shallow, so Flagler sent railway scouts to explore the possibility of building the line through to the tip of mainland Florida. [68], Conservationists concerned about the Everglades have been a vocal minority ever since Miami was a young city. The Okeechobee Flood Control District, financed by both state and federal funds, was created in 1929. Inland, a "drain-the-Everglades" mentality promoted by politicians and developers, forever altered the course of the "River of Grass." Bramson, Seth (1998). Some aim to sight the elusive Florida panther, American crocodile, or maybe even a Black bear. [72] The last chapter was titled "The Eleventh Hour" and warned that the Everglades were approaching death, although the course could be reversed. Most of the pine forests in Dade County were cleared for development. This page was last edited on 27 July 2020, at 18:39. Could the waterpower, obtained by draining, be improved to any useful purpose? Canals drain wetlands, which opens land for development and increases water delivery to cities, wells, and the coast. 1930 and 1937, Hoover Dike was built around Lake Okeechobee’s edge. The anonymous writer described the hunt for Chekika and the terrain they were crossing: "No country that I have ever heard of bears any resemblance to it; it seems like a vast sea filled with grass and green trees, and expressly intended as a retreat for the rascally Indian, from which the white man would never seek to drive them". The WCAs took up about 37 percent of the original Everglades. "[3] From this directive Secretary of the Treasury Robert J. Walker requested Thomas Buckingham Smith from St. Augustine to consult those with experience in the Everglades on the feasibility of draining them, saying that he had been told two or three canals to the Gulf of Mexico would be sufficient. Whenever the aborigines shall be forced from their fastnesses, as eventually they must be, the enterprising spirit of our countrymen will very soon discover the sections best adapted to cultivation, and the now barren or unproductive everglades will be made to blossom like a garden. However, an early report by the project reflected local attitudes about the Everglades as a priority to people in nearby developed areas: "The aesthetic appeal of the Park can never be as strong as the demands of home and livelihood. It also forced drainage commissioners to re-evaluate the effectiveness of the canals. The catastrophe made national news, and although the governor again refused aid, after he toured the area and counted 126 bodies still unburied or uncollected a week after the storm, he activated the National Guard to assist in the cleanup,[54] and declared in a telegram: "Without exaggeration, the situation in the storm area beggars description". Inland, a "drain-the-Everglades" mentality promoted by politicians and developers, forever altered the course of the "River of Grass." Today, the Everglades and Florida Bay receive less than twenty percent of the water they once did. Wright eventually retired when it was discovered that his colleagues disagreed with his conclusions and refused to approve the report's publication. "[9] A band of hunters, naturalists, and collectors ventured through in 1885, taking along with them the 17-year-old grandson of an early resident of Miami. Larry Perez, a biologist at Everglades National Park, in June 2017 looks at the impact of sea level rise on the southern fringe of the park. The limestone-based (marl) prairies of the southern Everglades have also been largely converted to agriculture. [7], The final blame for the military stalemate was determined to lie not in military preparation, supplies, leadership, or superior tactics by the Seminoles, but in Florida's impenetrable terrain. Nevertheless, cities like Parkland The scouts reported that not enough land was present to build through the Everglades, so Flagler instead changed the plan to build to Key West in 1912. Mangrove trees were cut down and replaced with palm trees to improve the view. President Herbert Hoover ordered the But swamp-draining can also cause serious problems for people and the environment, and nowhere is this truer than in the Florida Everglades. of this article was extracted from Draining and Development of the Everglades "[8] The land seemed to inspire extreme reactions of wonder or hatred. Hunters could collect plumes from a hundred birds on a good day.[46]. [21] Florida passed its first water laws to "build drains, ditches, or water courses upon petition of two or more landowners" in 1893. Could the waters be lowered ten feet, it would probably drain six hundred thousand acres; should this prove to be a rich soil, as would seem probable, what a field it would open for tropical productions! Everglades, owe their existence to almost 200 years of. [36] Land developers sold 20,000 lots in a few months. [33] In 1912 Florida appointed Wright to oversee the drainage, and the real estate industry energetically misrepresented this mid-level engineer as the world's foremost authority on wetlands drainage, in charge of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Build railway stations at towns as soon as the water they once did for its survival: were! Many lives were lost during the Second phase of the Panama Canal inspired him to connect his rail to... ] Waterfront property was the only road spanning between Tampa and Miami for agricultural use t… harmful... 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